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dc.contributor.authorCardon, Karen
dc.contributor.authorBullock, W. Michael
dc.contributor.authorBustillo, Juan
dc.contributor.authorRoberts, Rosalinda
dc.contributor.authorPerrone-Bizzozero, Nora
dc.date.accessioned2009-08-17T18:07:39Z
dc.date.available2009-08-17T18:07:39Z
dc.date.issued2008-10-15
dc.identifier.citation(doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.07121845)en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1928/9745
dc.description.abstractObjective: Deficits in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling have been described in the prefrontal cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum in individuals with schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate cerebellar gene expression alterations as they relate to decreases in GABAergic transmission by examining the expression of GABAergic markers, N-methyl-D-aspartic- acid (NMDA) receptor subunits, and cerebellum neuromodulators in individuals with schizophrenia. Method: Subjects were postmortem men with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (N=13) and a postmortem intervalmatched non-psychiatric male comparison group (N=13). The authors utilized real-time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure mRNA levels of the fol lowing GABAergic markers: glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67; GABA plasma membrane transporter- 1 (GAT-1); GABA type A (GABAA) receptor subunits α6, β3, and δ; and parvalbumin. In addition, real-time-quantitative PCR was utilized to assess mRNA levels of the NMDA receptor (NR) subunits NR1, NR2-A, NR2-B, NR2-C, and NR2-D as well as the cerebellar neuromodulators glutamate receptor (GluR)-6, kainate-preferring glutamate receptor subunit-2 (KA2), metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-2 and mGluR3, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Measurements for mRNA levels were determined using lateral cerebellar hemisphere tissue from both schizophrenia and comparison subjects. Results: Schizophrenia subjects showed significant decreases in mRNA levels of GAD67, GAD65, GAT-1, mGluR2, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Increases in GABAA-α6 and GABAA-δ as well as GluR6 and KA2 were also observed. Medication effects on the expression of the same genes were examined in rats treated with either haloperidol (Sprague-Dawley rats [N=16]) or clozapine (Long-Evans rats [N= 20]). Both haloperidol and clozapine increased the levels of GAD67 in the cerebellum and altered the expression of other cerebellar mRNAs. Conclusions: These findings suggest that GABA transmission is decreased in the cerebellar cortices in individuals with schizophrenia and additional gene expression changes may reflect an attempt to increase GABA neurotransmission at the cerebellar glomerulus.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherAJP In Advanceen_US
dc.subjectGABAergic Transmissionen_US
dc.subjectNeuromodulationen_US
dc.subjectGranule Cell Activityen_US
dc.subjectSchizophrenia Patientsen_US
dc.titleAltered Expression of Genes Involved in GABAergic Transmission and Neuromodulation of Granule Cell Activity in the Cerebellum of Schizophrenia Patientsen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
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The purpose of the present study was to further investigate\ncerebellar gene expression alterations as\nthey relate to decreases in GABAergic\ntransmission by examining the expression\nof GABAergic markers, N-methyl-D-aspartic-\nacid (NMDA) receptor subunits, and\ncerebellum neuromodulators in individuals\nwith schizophrenia.\nMethod: Subjects were postmortem\nmen with a diagnosis of schizophrenia\n(N=13) and a postmortem intervalmatched\nnon-psychiatric male comparison\ngroup (N=13). The authors utilized\nreal-time-quantitative polymerase chain\nreaction (PCR) to measure mRNA levels of\nthe fol lowing GABAergic markers:\nglutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and\n67; GABA plasma membrane transporter-\n1 (GAT-1); GABA type A (GABAA) receptor\nsubunits \u03b16, \u03b23, and \u03b4; and parvalbumin.\nIn addition, real-time-quantitative PCR\nwas utilized to assess mRNA levels of the\nNMDA receptor (NR) subunits NR1, NR2-A,\nNR2-B, NR2-C, and NR2-D as well as the\ncerebellar neuromodulators glutamate\nreceptor (GluR)-6, kainate-preferring\nglutamate receptor subunit-2 (KA2), metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-2\nand mGluR3, and neuronal nitric oxide\nsynthase. Measurements for mRNA levels\nwere determined using lateral cerebellar\nhemisphere tissue from both schizophrenia\nand comparison subjects.\nResults: Schizophrenia subjects showed\nsignificant decreases in mRNA levels of\nGAD67, GAD65, GAT-1, mGluR2, and neuronal\nnitric oxide synthase. Increases in\nGABAA-\u03b16 and GABAA-\u03b4 as well as GluR6\nand KA2 were also observed. Medication\neffects on the expression of the same\ngenes were examined in rats treated with\neither haloperidol (Sprague-Dawley rats\n[N=16]) or clozapine (Long-Evans rats [N=\n20]). 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