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  • [2009-07-28] Black Labor on a White Canal: West Indians in Panama, 1904-1980 

    Conniff, Michael L.
    As a crossroads for world commerce, Panama has always attracted outsiders. Traders, laborers, and adventurers swarmed to the Isthmus whenever new projects began. Between 1850 and 1950, as many as 200,000 West Indian blacks ...