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Fluvial sedimentation in continental half-graben basins


Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/10860

Fluvial sedimentation in continental half-graben basins

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dc.contributor.advisor Sedimentary basins en_US
dc.contributor.author Connell, Sean
dc.date.accessioned 2010-06-25T22:02:55Z
dc.date.available 2010-06-25T22:02:55Z
dc.date.issued 2010-06-25T22:02:55Z
dc.date.submitted May 2010
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/1928/10860
dc.description.abstract The stratigraphic architecture of intracontinental rift basins is defined by a dynamic relationship between depositional belts associated with the basin floor and flanking tributary streams on the piedmont. Spatiotemporal distributions of these deposits are sensitive to basin geometry, subsidence rate, and discharge. Understanding how these depositional belts respond to allogenic forcing is examined using experimental and field approaches. Physical experiments focused on the geomorphic evolution of drainage and the resulting stratigraphic architecture in an asymmetrically subsiding basin based on the form of a simple half graben with four interacting supply points of sediment and water that produced an axial fan and longitudinal channel flanked by transverse fans. Imposition of various combinations of lateral and axial sediment flux showed that the locations and widths of the deposits were controlled by relative sediment discharges and not by the location of the subsidence maximum. Except during the highest of axial sediment discharges in the experiment, the axial drainage was dominated by transverse sources through toe cutting. Footwall fans persisted under conditions of high axial-sediment discharge, aided by topographic inheritance and steeper deposit slopes. The hanging-wall fan responded to changes in sediment discharge more slowly than the footwall. Field comparisons focused on a study of Plio-Pleistocene deposits in the tectonically active Albuquerque Basin of New Mexico. Deposits on the distal hanging-wall ramp onlapped a widespread Miocene erosion surface, burying it by 3.0 Ma. These deposits coarsened after 2.6 Ma, forming a broad sheet of amalgamated channel deposits that prograded into the basin until 1.8 Ma. Axial-river deposition focused near the eastern master-fault system until piedmont deposits prograded away from the basin border after 1.8 Ma. Basin-fill deposition ceased when the axial river began incising shortly after 0.8 Ma. The asynchronous progradation of coarse-grained, margin-sourced detritus may be a consequence of half-graben basin shape that promoted extensive bypass of sediment. Integration of the axial drainage and development of this Plio-Pleistocene sequence likely formed as a result of increased discharge due to late Pliocene and early Pleistocene climatic changes. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Science Foundation Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory Industrial Consortium, University of Minnesota National Center for EarthSurface Dynamics en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject Neogene tectonics en_US
dc.subject nonmarine stratigraphy en_US
dc.subject basin analysis en_US
dc.subject Rio Grande Rift en_US
dc.subject magnetostratigraphy en_US
dc.subject geomorphology en_US
dc.subject experimental stratigraphy en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Sedimentation and deposition
dc.subject.lcsh Fluvial geomorphology
dc.subject.lcsh Grabens (Geology)
dc.subject.lcsh Albuquerque Basin (N.M.)
dc.subject.lcsh Rio Grande Rift
dc.title Fluvial sedimentation in continental half-graben basins en_US
dc.type Dissertation en_US
dc.description.degree Earth and Planetary Sciences en_US
dc.description.level Doctoral en_US
dc.description.department University of New Mexico. Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences en_US
dc.description.advisor Smith, Gary
dc.description.committee-member Geissman, John
dc.description.committee-member Crossey, Laura
dc.description.committee-member Meyer, Grant
dc.description.committee-member Paola, Christopher

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CONNELL_DISSERTATION.pdf 91.88Mb PDF View/Open DissertationDocument
AppendixA.zip 81.63Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixA
AppendixD1.zip 109.0Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part1
AppendixD2.zip 63.68Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part2
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AppendixE.zip 78.48Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixE
AppendixF1.zip 3.573Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part1
AppendixF2.zip 72.06Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part2
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AppendixG.zip 2.431Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixG
AppendixH1.zip 77.98Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part1
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AppendixH3a.zip 125.4Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part3a
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