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Chimeras and Jagunços: Positivist Discourse in Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões

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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/9351

Chimeras and Jagunços: Positivist Discourse in Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões

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Title: Chimeras and Jagunços: Positivist Discourse in Euclides da Cunha's Os Sertões
Author: Barber, Justin
Advisor(s): Bieber, Judy
Committee Member(s): Hutchison, Elizabeth
Bokovoy, Melissa
Department: History
Subject(s): Brazil
Positivism
Euclides da Cunha
Nineteenth Century
Auguste Comte
Canudos
Antonio Conselheiro
Jagunço
Degree Level: Masters
Abstract: The present study elucidates the discursive practice of positivism, as particularly manifested in late nineteenth-century Brazil. Founded in 1889, the Republic of the United States of Brazil was constructed as a positivist state by republican idealists and pragmatic oligarchs; the political embodiment of ordem e progresso (order and progress). It was a form of government meant to overcome Brazil’s imagined and concrete backwardness by strictly adhering to the Natural Laws identified by Auguste Comte, Charles Darwin, and, in particular, Herbert Spencer. Positivist progress was, however, contingent upon the elimination of the pathological, amorphous “savage lower races.” Non-white degeneration in Brazil, especially amongst its substantial mixed-race populace, was thus understood to be a progressive, equilibrating force of Evolution. For close to a century Euclides da Cunha’s Os Sertões has been treated as the literary instantiation of mestiço degeneration, a work best classified with the Spencerian “race science” of Arthur Gobineau and Raimundo Nina Rodrigues. This classification, however, is incorrect. In Os Sertões, Da Cunha incarnates the totality of Brazilian progress—progress utterly superior to that of European civilization—in the body of his chimerical jagunços, a perfectly miscegenated balance of what he identifies as Brazil’s fundamental “ethnic elements”: the African, the indigenous, and the Portuguese.
Graduation Date: May 2009
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/9351

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