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Land, Gender, and the Politics of Identity Formation: Uncovering Hispana/Mexicana Voices in the Southwest

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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/13166

Land, Gender, and the Politics of Identity Formation: Uncovering Hispana/Mexicana Voices in the Southwest

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Title: Land, Gender, and the Politics of Identity Formation: Uncovering Hispana/Mexicana Voices in the Southwest
Author: Roybal, Karen R.
Advisor(s): Melendez, A. Gabriel
Committee Member(s): Aleman, Jesse
Trujillo, Michael L.
Diaz, Rose
Department: University of New Mexico. Dept. of American Studies
Subject(s): Land
Gender
Politics
Identity
Southwest
Culture
Autobiography
Testimonio
Feminist
Nineteenth Century
Twentieth Century
California
Texas
New Mexico
Arizona
Maria Amparo Ruiz de Burton
Jovita Gonzalez
Fabiola Cabeza de Baca
Eva Antonia Wilbur-Cruce
History
Hybrid
Elite
Testimonios herederas
LC Subject(s): Land tenure--Southwest, New--History--19th century
Land tenure--Southwest, New--History--20th century
Hispanic American women--Social conditions--History--19th century
Hispanic American women--Social conditions--History--20th century
Hispanic American women--Economic conditions--History--19th century
Hispanic American women--Economic conditions--History--20th century
Degree Level: Doctoral
Abstract: The southwestern United States has an exceptional history that makes the region a prime focus for study concentrating on culture, tradition, language and land. As an area closely tied to the concept of conquest, the Southwest has had its share of issues related to colonization, imperialism, Manifest Destiny, and cultural erasure. This study focuses on the Southwest as a region that is closely linked to the land as it relates to the formation of identities of its people. Mexican Americans in the Southwest have historically experienced struggle, particularly after 1848 and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, when native Californios, Nuevo Mexicanos, Tejanos and others were thrust into American citizenship without many of the benefits afforded other citizens. They were also at the center of a battle for their land—land that was highly contested as the ideological concept of Manifest Destiny promoted the idea of westward expansion and takeover of “undiscovered,” “unclaimed,” and “virgin lands.” This study provides a comparative analysis of Hispana/Mexicana testimonios herederas, a concept I use to identify the shared, or inherited, history of women’s struggle and resistance across historical contexts. The specific testimonios examined develop from the cultural production of María Amparo Ruiz de Burton, Jovita González, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca and Eva Antonia Wilbur-Cruce. By using an interdisciplinary approach, this dissertation demonstrates the diverse range of historical materials that can be used in academic research related to Hispana/Mexicana land-related struggles. These include ethnographic, autobiographic, historical, and literary materials, all of which help to re-imagine traditional conceptions of identity, gender, history, and culture. The hybrid methods employed by the Hispanas/Mexicanas reveal what Chicana feminist Emma Pérez (1999) calls the “third space[s],” where social, individual and community commentary emerge(s). This study demonstrates that women were active agents in land struggles long before the Chicano movement and Chicana identity politics. Specifically, it suggests that female agency was present in the fight for land in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries across the Southwest, in California, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The analysis demonstrates that the women do not follow dominant narratives despite their social status as elites. This action indicates that, as a whole, Hispanas/Mexicanas pushed back, forcing contemporary scholars to acknowledge that regardless of class level, they actively engaged in the land struggle early on.
Graduation Date: July 2011
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/13166
Item Available: 2017-07-31

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