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Fluvial sedimentation in continental half-graben basins

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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/10860

Fluvial sedimentation in continental half-graben basins

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Title: Fluvial sedimentation in continental half-graben basins
Author: Connell, Sean
Advisor(s): Smith, Gary
Committee Member(s): Geissman, John
Crossey, Laura
Meyer, Grant
Paola, Christopher
Department: University of New Mexico. Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences
Subject: Neogene tectonics
nonmarine stratigraphy
basin analysis
Rio Grande Rift
magnetostratigraphy
geomorphology
experimental stratigraphy
LC Subject(s): Sedimentation and deposition
Fluvial geomorphology
Grabens (Geology)
Albuquerque Basin (N.M.)
Rio Grande Rift
Degree Level: Doctoral
Abstract: The stratigraphic architecture of intracontinental rift basins is defined by a dynamic relationship between depositional belts associated with the basin floor and flanking tributary streams on the piedmont. Spatiotemporal distributions of these deposits are sensitive to basin geometry, subsidence rate, and discharge. Understanding how these depositional belts respond to allogenic forcing is examined using experimental and field approaches. Physical experiments focused on the geomorphic evolution of drainage and the resulting stratigraphic architecture in an asymmetrically subsiding basin based on the form of a simple half graben with four interacting supply points of sediment and water that produced an axial fan and longitudinal channel flanked by transverse fans. Imposition of various combinations of lateral and axial sediment flux showed that the locations and widths of the deposits were controlled by relative sediment discharges and not by the location of the subsidence maximum. Except during the highest of axial sediment discharges in the experiment, the axial drainage was dominated by transverse sources through toe cutting. Footwall fans persisted under conditions of high axial-sediment discharge, aided by topographic inheritance and steeper deposit slopes. The hanging-wall fan responded to changes in sediment discharge more slowly than the footwall. Field comparisons focused on a study of Plio-Pleistocene deposits in the tectonically active Albuquerque Basin of New Mexico. Deposits on the distal hanging-wall ramp onlapped a widespread Miocene erosion surface, burying it by 3.0 Ma. These deposits coarsened after 2.6 Ma, forming a broad sheet of amalgamated channel deposits that prograded into the basin until 1.8 Ma. Axial-river deposition focused near the eastern master-fault system until piedmont deposits prograded away from the basin border after 1.8 Ma. Basin-fill deposition ceased when the axial river began incising shortly after 0.8 Ma. The asynchronous progradation of coarse-grained, margin-sourced detritus may be a consequence of half-graben basin shape that promoted extensive bypass of sediment. Integration of the axial drainage and development of this Plio-Pleistocene sequence likely formed as a result of increased discharge due to late Pliocene and early Pleistocene climatic changes.
Graduation Date: May 2010
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1928/10860


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CONNELL_DISSERTATION.pdf 91.88Mb PDF View/Open DissertationDocument
AppendixA.zip 81.63Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixA
AppendixD1.zip 109.0Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part1
AppendixD2.zip 63.68Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part2
AppendixD3.zip 162.1Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part3
AppendixD4.zip 136.7Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part4
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AppendixD6.zip 138.7Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixD_part6
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AppendixE.zip 78.48Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixE
AppendixF1.zip 3.573Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part1
AppendixF2.zip 72.06Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part2
AppendixF3.zip 57.19Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part3
AppendixF4.zip 56.94Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part4
AppendixF5.zip 54.09Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part5
AppendixF6.zip 36.55Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixF_part6
AppendixG.zip 2.431Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixG
AppendixH1.zip 77.98Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part1
AppendixH2.zip 41.01Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part2
AppendixH3a.zip 125.4Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part3a
AppendixH3b.zip 146.8Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part3b
AppendixH4.zip 194.1Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part4
AppendixH5a.zip 118.1Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part5a
AppendixH5b.zip 135.8Mb Unknown View/Open SupplementaryFile_AppendixH_part5b
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